未来智讯 > 无人驾驶论文 > 看,无人驾驶汽车来了


发布时间:2018-11-27 01:06:01 文章来源:未来智讯    
    看,无人驾驶汽车来了作者: 本刊编辑部      The object sits on the 2)shoulder of the 3)freeway, slowly 4)shimmering into view. Is it 5)roadkill? A weird kind of 6)sagebrush? No, wait, it’s…a 7)puffy chunk of foam 8)insulation!“The laser almost certainly got returns off of it,”says Chris Urmson, a 9)roboticist, sitting behind the wheel of the 10)Prius he is not driving. A note is made as we drive past, to help our computerized car understand the curious 11)flotsam it has just seen. It’s a Monday, midday, and we are heading north on California Highway 85 in a Google autonomous vehicle. “This car can do 75 mph,” Urmson says. “It can track pedestrians and cyclists. It understands traffic lights. It can merge at highway speeds.” In short, after almost a hundred years in which driving has remained essentially unchanged, it has been completely transformed in just the past half decade.
  As we are in the Google car, I watch the action unfold on the computer monitor mounted on the passenger side of the 12)dashboard. It shows how the car is interpreting the world: lanes, signs, cars, speeds, distances. It is absolutely fascinating to watch as the car not only 13)plots and calculates the 14)myriad movements of neighboring vehicles in the moment, but also predicts where they will be in the future. “We’re analyzing and predicting the world 20 times a second,” says Anthony Levandowski, business lead on Google’s self-driving-car project.
  A car comes speeding along the adjacent 15)onramp. Do we accelerate or slow? It’s a moment that puzzles many human drivers. Our vehicle chooses to 16)decelerate, but it can rethink that decision as more data comes in―if, for instance, the merging car brakes suddenly. The computer 17)flags a car one lane over, maybe 30 feet in front of us, and slows 18)imperceptibly. “We’re being held back by this guy because we don’t want to be in his blind spot,”Levandowski says. A bus suddenly 19)looms next to us. “Even if you can drive in the center of the lane, down to the centimeter, that doesn’t mean it’s the safest route,” he says. And so the car 20)drifts just a bit to the left to 21)distance itself from the bus. “If you look at it, we’re not actually driving center, though we’re still not driving as bad as he is,” he says, pointing to a gray 22)SUV ahead that’s 23)straddling two lanes.
  Levandowski has a point. I was briefly nervous when Urmson first took his hands off the wheel and a 24)synth woman’s voice announced 25)coolly,“Autodrive.” But after a few minutes, the idea of a computer-driven car seemed much less terrifying than the 26)panorama of BlackBerry-27)fumbling, rule-28)flouting, and other 29)vagaries of the humans around us. The Prius begins to seem like the 30)Platonic ideal of a driver, against which all others 31)fall short. It can think faster than any 32)mortal driver. It can 33)attend to more information, react more quickly to emergencies, and keep track of more complicated routes. It never panics. It never gets angry. It never even blinks. In short, it is better than human in just about every way. I find myself imagining how much more smoothly the system would function if every car were like this one.
  While Google wants to create, in essence, computers that drive, the auto industry has been trying to make its vehicles drive more like computers. 34)Bolstered by increasingly powerful and affordable sensors, sophisticated 35)algorithms, and 36)Moore’s law, the world’s carmakers have been slowly redefining what it means to be a driver, encouraging us to 37)offload everything from 38)shifting gears to parallel parking. The automated car isn’t just around the corner―it’s here.
  No computer voice greets me when I press the ignition button of the new S-Class Mercedes parked in the front lot of 39)Mercedes-Benz Research & Development in Palo Alto. My driving is being constantly monitored by the car’s Attention Assistance function, which tracks more than 70 elements―from minor steering wheel movements to my use of turn signals―for signs of operator 40)fatigue. After 20 minutes, the 41)baseline is set and the car will flag subsequent deviations. If, while 42)parsing the data, it senses that I’ve grown weary, a coffee cup icon pops up in the instrument cluster(it’s up to me to 43)pull over for the coffee).
  Attention assistance is just the beginning. R&D head Johann Jungwirth, who’s sitting next to me, 44)ticks off with a salesman’s efficiency everything the car does for me: If it rains, the 45)wipers activate. If I enter a tunnel, the headlights adjust their illumination. When a car in the neighboring lane creeps into my blind spot, a red triangle illuminates in my side mirror; if I try to change lanes, the icon flashes and beeps. If I drift out of my lane, the steering wheel 46)rumbles gently. It is, in short, a 47)stealthily 48)semiautonomous computer on wheels. “There are tens of thousands of processes running in parallel,” Jungwirth says. A car like this 49)boasts upwards of 60 electronic control units, handling everything from automatic braking to automatic 50)trunk opening.
  The truth is we have gradually been distancing our level of active engagement with the process of operating a car. We automated the shifting of gears. We went from 51)manual steering to power steering and then finally to “drive-by-wire,” in which the mechanical connection between the steering wheel and the tires was replaced by a series of electrical 52)impulses. We gave up paper maps for digital navigation systems. The hazards of parallel parking have been 53)ironed out by 54)ultrasonic sensors. This year, electronic stability control is standard on vehicles sold in the US for the same reason 55)antilock brakes are standard in Europe: Its algorithms can perform better than humans in emergency 56)maneuvering.
  Nobody knows how self-driving cars might change the 57)fabric of our lives. “The moment you start putting intelligence in a car, you start changing the essence of what a car is,” 58)futurist Saffo says.
  坐在google无人驾驶汽车里,我能够通过靠副驾驶位置、安装在仪表板上的电脑监视器明白车子的一切运作。它显示着汽车对周围世界的感知:车道、信号、汽车、车速、距离。看着电脑一边测定并计算此时周围汽车的位置和运动,一边预测它们下一刻的方位,实在是令人着迷。“我们每秒钟对周围世界进行2 0次分析和预测,”google公司无人驾驶汽车项目负责人安东尼・列文托斯基说。